Carotid Artery supplies the brain with blood.  Carotid plaque (atherosclerosis) is the most common cause of Ischemic Stroke, the #2 killer worldwide.  For more information:

Carotid plaque characterization allows a better classification of who is the high-risk and what is the optimal preventive treatment for each individual patient.  The preventive treatment options for carotid plaque (atherosclerosis) include Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA), Carotid Stenting, and drug treatments. For More Information:

Validations:Non-invasive Ultrasound Imaging of Carotid Atherosclerosis 

VPDiagnostics is conducting a NIH sponsored research to develop tools to characterize the carotid plaque components from non-invasive ultrasound and to compare with those from MRI,in order to validate the potentials of ultrasound in carotid plaque imaging.

Validations: MRI of Carotid Atherosclerosis

Selected publications on medical applications of Carotid Atherosclerosis MRI, published by our partners or by independent researchers, are listed below.  Click links in Table of Contents below to jump directly to specific areas.  (Contact Us for suggestions on publications.)

1. Preventive Treatment of Carotid Stroke
2. Risk Stratification of Carotid Stroke 
2.1   Prospective Risk of Carotid Stroke – Symptomatic and Asymptomatic
2.2   Other Assessments of Stroke Risk – Symptomatic and Asymptomatic
3. Systemic Cardiovascular Risk
4. Pharmaceutical Trials
5. Population Studies

1. Carotid Atherosclerosis MRI: Plan Preventive Treatment of Carotid Stroke

Embolic complications after carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy are associated with tissue characteristics of carotid plaques evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. (K. Yamada et al. Atherosclerosis 215 2011) PDF

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2. Carotid Atherosclerosis MRI: Risk Stratification of Carotid Stroke 

2.1 Prospective Risk Of Carotid Stroke – Symptomatic and Asymptomatic

Unstable Plaque Causing Cardiovascular / Neurovascular DiseasesAssociation between carotid plaque characteristics and subsequent ischemic cerebrovascular events: a prospective assessment with MRI–initial results. (Takaya, Stroke, 2006)  PDF

Detection of intraplaque hemorrhage by magnetic resonance imaging in symptomatic patients with mild to moderate carotid stenosis predicts recurrent neurological events. (Altaf, J Vasc Surg. 2008)

Predictors of surface disruption with MR imaging in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. (Underhill, AJNR 2010)  PDF

Moderate carotid artery stenosis: MR imaging-depicted intraplaque hemorrhage predicts risk of cerebrovascular ischemic events in asymptomatic men. (Singh, Radiology, 2009)

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2.2 Other Assessments Of Stroke Risk – Symptomatic and Asymptomatic

MR Carotid Plaque Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography Identifies Lesions Associated with Recent Ipsilateral Thromboembolic Symptoms: An In Vivo Study at 3T. (DeMarco, AJNR 2010)  PDF

A noninvasive imaging approach to assess plaque severity: the carotid atherosclerosis score. (Underhill, AJNR 2010) PDF

Longitudinal Distribution of Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques of Symptomatic Patients. (Thrysoe, Stroke. 2010)

Hemorrhage and large lipid-rich necrotic cores are independently associated with thin or ruptured fibrous caps: an in vivo 3T MRI study. (Ota, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009) PDF

Atherosclerotic carotid vulnerable plaque and subsequent stroke: a high-resolution MRI study (Gao Cerebrovasc Dis 2009)

Utility of high resolution MR imaging to assess carotid plaque morphology: a comparison of acute symptomatic, recently symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with carotid artery disease. (Sadat, Atherosclerosis. 2009)

Characterisation of carotid atheroma in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients using high resolution MRI. (U-King-Im, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008)

Comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque features with in vivo MR imaging. (Saam, Radiology. 2006) PDF

Prevalence of complicated carotid atheroma as detected by magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging in patients with suspected carotid artery stenosis and previous acute cerebral ischemia. (Murphy, Circulation. 2003) PDF

Identification of fibrous cap rupture with magnetic resonance imaging is highly associated with recent transient ischemic attack or stroke. (Yuan, Circulation. 2002) PDF

Presence of intraplaque hemorrhage stimulates progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. (Takaya, Circulation.2005)

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Carotid Atherosclerosis MRI: Systemic Cardiovascular Risk

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance parameters of atherosclerotic plaque burden improve discrimination of prior major adverse cardiovascular events. (Mani, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2009) PDF

Differences in carotid arterial morphology and composition between individuals with and without obstructive coronary artery disease: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. (Underhill, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2008) PDF

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Carotid Atherosclerosis MRI: Pharmaceutical Trials

Rationale and design of the carotid plaque in human for all evaluations with aggressive rosuvastatin therapy (CHALLENGER trial): evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging (Miyauchi Circ J 2009)

Effect of rosuvastatin therapy on carotid plaque morphology and composition in moderately hypercholesterolemic patients: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging trial. (Underhill, Am Heart J. 2008)

Testing the hypothesis of atherosclerotic plaque lipid depletion during lipid therapy by magnetic resonance imaging: study design of Carotid Plaque Composition Study. (Zhao, Am Heart J. 2007)

MRI of atherosclerosis in clinical trials (Yuan NMR Biomed 2006)

Sample size calculation for clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging for the quantitative assessment of carotid atherosclerosis (Saam JCMR 2005)

Effects of aggressive versus conventional lipid-lowering therapy by simvastatin on human atherosclerotic lesions: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (Corti JACC 2005)

Feasibility of in vivo, multicontrast-weighted MR imaging of carotid atherosclerosis for multicenter studies (Chu JMRI 2005)

Lipid lowering by simvastatin induces regression of human atherosclerotic lesions: two years’ follow-up by high-resolution noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (Corti Circulation 2002)

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5  Carotid Atherosclerosis MRI: Population Studies

Arterial remodeling in subclinical carotid artery disease (Underhill JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2010)

Geometric and compositional appearance of atheroma in an angiographically normal carotid artery in patients with atherosclerosis (Dong AJNR 2010)

Prevalence of compositional features in subclinical carotid atherosclerosis determined by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in chinese patients with coronary artery disease (Zhao Stroke 2010)

Time-efficient patient-specific quantification of regional carotid artery fluid dynamics and spatial correlation with plaque burden (LaDisa Med Phys 2010)

Sex differences in patients with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque: in vivo 3.0-T magnetic resonance study (Ota Stroke 2010)

Prevalence of American Heart Association type VI carotid atherosclerotic lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging for different levels of stenosis as measured by duplex ultrasound (Saam JACC 2008)

Association of high-density lipoprotein levels and carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics by magnetic resonance imaging (Phan Int J Cardiovasc Imag 2007)

Predictors of carotid atherosclerotic plaque progression as measured by noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (Saam Atherosclerosis 2007)

Presence of intraplaque hemorrhage stimulates progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study (Takaya Circulation 2005)

Carotid plaque composition differs between ethno-racial groups: an MRI pilot study comparing mainland Chinese and American Caucasian patients (Saam ATVB 2005)

Tracking regression and progression of atherosclerosis in human carotid arteries using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (Adams MRI 2004)

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